Computer History

This information came from the text "Computer Organization & Design," Second Edition, by David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, section 1.8. This is an amazing textbook, by the way.

1939-1945 ENIAC Electronic Numeric Integrator And Calculator, funded by US Army, became operational during WWII but not made known until 1946; built at the Moore School of the University of Pennsylvania by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly; "widely accepted to be the world's first operational electronic, general purpose computer" [P&H pg 32]; 18,000 vacuum tubes; 1900 addition operations per second.
1944 EDVAC Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, based on ENIAC; this was the origin of the term von Neumann computer because John von Neumann "wrote up the ideas" [P&H pg 33], but this wasn't entirely fair nor accurate since Eckert and Mauchly engineered it; this was a stored-program computer unlike the ENIAC which was manually programmed; it's not clear from the text whether this machine was ever actually built.
1949 EDSAC Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator, built by Maurice Wilkes of Cambridge University; "the world's first full-scale, operational, stored-program computer" [P&H gp 33].
1949 BINAC Built by Eckert and Mauchly by their Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation for Northrop.
1951 UNIVAC I Universal Automatic Computer, by Eckert and Mauchly after their company was bought by Remington-Rand; "designed to be sold as a general-purpose computer... sold for about $1 million and was the first successful commercial computer -- 48 systems were built" [P&H pg 36].
1952 IBM 701 First IBM computer which eventually sold 19 units.
1963 CDC 6600 Control Data Corporation (Seymour Cray) announces the first supercomputer.
1964 IBM System/360 This was the start of the concept of a line of computers based on the same architecture, rather than starting from scratch with each new computer.  There were 6 systems in this line:
Model 40: 1.6MHz,  32KB-256KB,   $225,000
Model 50: 2.0MHz, 128KB-256KB,   $550,000
Model 65: 5.0MHz, 256KB-  1MB, $1,200,000
Model 75: 5.1MHz, 256KB-  1MB, $1,900,000
Those prices are for the processor and memory systems; I/O devices were extra.  The other 2 of the 6 systems aren't listed in the text.
1965 DEC PDP-8 Digital Equipment Corporation sold this, the first commercial minicomputer, for $20,000.
1971 Intel 4004 Intel releases the first microprocessor.
1976 Cray-1 Seymour Cray's Cray Research, Inc., announces the world's first commercial vector supercomputer, that was "simultaneously the fastest in the world, the most expensive, and the computer with the best cost/performance for scientific programs" [P&H pg 39].
1977 Apple II Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak's personal computer that "defined the personal computer industry" [P&H pg 41].
1981 IBM PC The IBM Personal Computer, the best selling computer of any kind.