This information came from the text "Computer Organization & Design," Second Edition, by David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, section 1.8. This is an amazing textbook, by the way.
|1939-1945||ENIAC||Electronic Numeric Integrator And Calculator, funded by US Army, became operational during WWII but not made known until 1946; built at the Moore School of the University of Pennsylvania by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly; "widely accepted to be the world's first operational electronic, general purpose computer" [P&H pg 32]; 18,000 vacuum tubes; 1900 addition operations per second.|
|1944||EDVAC||Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, based on ENIAC; this was the origin of the term von Neumann computer because John von Neumann "wrote up the ideas" [P&H pg 33], but this wasn't entirely fair nor accurate since Eckert and Mauchly engineered it; this was a stored-program computer unlike the ENIAC which was manually programmed; it's not clear from the text whether this machine was ever actually built.|
|1949||EDSAC||Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator, built by Maurice Wilkes of Cambridge University; "the world's first full-scale, operational, stored-program computer" [P&H gp 33].|
|1949||BINAC||Built by Eckert and Mauchly by their Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation for Northrop.|
|1951||UNIVAC I||Universal Automatic Computer, by Eckert and Mauchly after their company was bought by Remington-Rand; "designed to be sold as a general-purpose computer... sold for about $1 million and was the first successful commercial computer -- 48 systems were built" [P&H pg 36].|
|1952||IBM 701||First IBM computer which eventually sold 19 units.|
|1963||CDC 6600||Control Data Corporation (Seymour Cray) announces the first supercomputer.|
|1964||IBM System/360||This was the start of the concept of a line of computers based on the same architecture,
rather than starting from scratch with each new computer. There were 6 systems in this
Model 40: 1.6MHz, 32KB-256KB, $225,000 Model 50: 2.0MHz, 128KB-256KB, $550,000 Model 65: 5.0MHz, 256KB- 1MB, $1,200,000 Model 75: 5.1MHz, 256KB- 1MB, $1,900,000Those prices are for the processor and memory systems; I/O devices were extra. The other 2 of the 6 systems aren't listed in the text.
|1965||DEC PDP-8||Digital Equipment Corporation sold this, the first commercial minicomputer, for $20,000.|
|1971||Intel 4004||Intel releases the first microprocessor.|
|1976||Cray-1||Seymour Cray's Cray Research, Inc., announces the world's first commercial vector supercomputer, that was "simultaneously the fastest in the world, the most expensive, and the computer with the best cost/performance for scientific programs" [P&H pg 39].|
|1977||Apple II||Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak's personal computer that "defined the personal computer industry" [P&H pg 41].|
|1981||IBM PC||The IBM Personal Computer, the best selling computer of any kind.|